Romans 16: Fellowship of the Faithful

What might Phoebe’s role have been in going to Rome?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:1–2 Welcome into your fellowship our sister Phoebe, who has been a faithful servant in the church in Cenchrea. Embrace her as one of your own and be sure her needs are met, because she has been a great help to many people, including me.
King James
Romans 16:1–2 I commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a servant of the church which is at Cenchrea: That ye receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you: for she hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also.

Why would Priscilla and Aquila be concerned for the Christians in Rome?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Acts 18:1–2 Next, Paul left Athens for Corinth, where he met Aquila, born in Pontus and a recent Jewish immigrant from Rome, and his wife, Priscilla. They had left Italy when Claudius Caesar ordered all Jews to leave.
Romans 16:3–4 Say hello to Priscilla and Aquila, for they have been my dedicated helpers in doing the work of Jesus Christ, putting their lives at risk. I thank God for them, as do all the Gentile churches.
King James
Acts 18:1–2 After these things Paul departed from Athens, and came to Corinth; And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.
Romans 16:3–4 Greet Priscilla and Aquila my helpers in Christ Jesus: Who have for my life laid down their own necks: unto whom not only I give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles.

How easily do you think believers in Rome would have welcomed strangers like Epaenetus and Mary?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:5–6 Also consider as a part of your fellowship the people who meet in their house, including my good friend Epaenetus, who was the first person to accept Christ in southern Greece. Remember Mary, who has worked so hard for us.
King James
Romans 16:5–6 Likewise greet the church that is in their house. Salute my wellbeloved Epaenetus, who is the firstfruits of Achaia unto Christ. Greet Mary, who bestowed much labour on us.

Why do you think Junia and Andronicus were called “apostles”?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:7 Know of Andronicus and Junia, a Jewish pair who were with me in prison. Outstanding apostles, they were followers of Christ before I was.
King James
Romans 16:7 Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen, and my fellowprisoners, who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me.

Of what importance might Ampliatus, Urbanus, and Stachys have been to those traveling to Rome?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:8–9 Also think of Ampliatus, another dear friend in the Lord, and Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, as well as my friend Stachys.
King James
Romans 16:8–9 Greet Amplias my beloved in the Lord. Salute Urbane, our helper in Christ, and Stachys my beloved.

If Apelles, Aristobulus, Herodion, and the believers who met at the house of Narcissus were not a part of the group going to Rome, why would they be mentioned?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:10–11 Apelles is your faithful servant in Christ, as are also the believers who meet at the house of Aristobulus. May I introduce you to Herodion, my fellow Jew, and the believers who meet at the house of Narcissus.
King James
Romans 16:10–11 Salute Apelles approved in Christ. Salute them which are of Aristobulus’ household. Salute Herodion my kinsman. Greet them that be of the household of Narcissus, which are in the Lord.

Why might the names Tryphena, Tryphosa, Persis, and Rufus have been important to the Romans?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:12–13 Also there are Tryphena and Tryphosa, as well as my dear Persis, who have worked diligently for the Lord. You should know of Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his mother, who has been like a mother to me.
King James
Romans 16:12–13 Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord. Salute the beloved Persis, which laboured much in the Lord. Salute Rufus chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine.

What would have made Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, and Hermes worth mentioning above other members of their group?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:14 Our fellowship includes Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and those who are in their small group.
King James
Romans 16:14 Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren which are with them.

Assuming that many of these people were part of churches elsewhere and not a part of the group that went to Rome, why would Paul want to state the names of people unknown to the Romans?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:12–15 Also there are Tryphena and Tryphosa, as well as my dear Persis, who have worked diligently for the Lord. You should know of Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his mother, who has been like a mother to me. Our fellowship includes Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and those who are in their small group. There are Philologus, Julia, Nereus and his sister, Olympas, and the believers who meet with them.
King James
Romans 16:12–15 Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord. Salute the beloved Persis, which laboured much in the Lord. Salute Rufus chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine. Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren which are with them. Salute Philologus, and Julia, Nereus, and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints which are with them.

How important is the meeting of believers in fellowship?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:16 Give everyone in our fellowship a warm greeting from me and the churches of Christ.
King James
Romans 16:16 Salute one another with an holy kiss. The churches of Christ salute you.

Why do you think Paul cautioned the Romans about false teaching?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:17–18 Now I beg you, my friends, to watch out for people who stir up strife and create divisions among you concerning the teaching you have heard and accepted. Avoid them because they serve their own interests, not the purpose of our Lord Jesus Christ. With their eloquent speech and enticing words, they deceive innocent people.
King James
Romans 16:17–18 Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them. For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.

How would news concerning the Christians in Rome have spread around the world?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:19 Your commitment to Christ’s message is known throughout the world. I’m happy for you, but I want you to use wisdom in discerning what is right, keeping innocent people from being misled.
King James
Romans 16:19 For your obedience is come abroad unto all men. I am glad therefore on your behalf: but yet I would have you wise unto that which is good, and simple concerning evil.

If Satan still roams the earth as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour, why should we think he will ever be defeated?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:20 The God of peace will soon crush Satan beneath your feet. May the kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Yes, let it always be so.
1 Peter 5:8 Watch out! Your adversary Satan is roaming the earth like a roaring lion, looking for those he might devour.
Revelation 12:10–11 A loud voice from Heaven shouted, “Salvation and power has come through God’s dominion and Christ’s authority. Satan, who has been accusing the people day and night, is now cast down. The people have overcome Satan (1) by the sacrifice of the Lamb, (2) by giving their testimonies, and (3) by complete surrender to God’s will, even unto death.”
King James
Romans 16:20 And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.
1 Peter 5:8 Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour:
Revelation 12:10–11 And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night. And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death.

How important to Paul’s ministry do you think Timothy and his Jewish friends were?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:21 My co-worker Timothy sends his greetings, as do Lucius, Jason, and Sosipater, my Jewish friends.
King James
Romans 16:21 Timotheus my workfellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you.

How much influence might Tertius have had in the wording of Paul’s letter to the Romans?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:22 Tertius, who wrote this letter for me, sends his greetings in the Lord.
King James
Romans 16:22 I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord.

What purpose might Paul have had in mentioning Gaius, Erastus, and Quartus?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:23 Gaius sends his greetings. I and the church here appreciate his hospitality. Erastus, the city treasurer, and also our brother Quartus, greet you.
King James
Romans 16:23 Gaius mine host, and of the whole church, saluteth you. Erastus the chamberlain of the city saluteth you, and Quartus a brother.

What is the value of wishing well for others?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:24 May the kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Yes, let it always be so.
King James
Romans 16:24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

How important is giving God credit for our success?

Author’s Thoughts
Authors’s insights pending.
Author’s Paraphrase
Romans 16:25–27 All praise goes to the One who has made you strong in proclaiming my message of Jesus Christ. Unveiling the mystery of the ages, we follow the commandment of our eternal God. Through the words of the prophets, we make the truth known to people of all nations so they might believe and follow Christ. To God, who alone is wise, be all praise and honor and glory through Jesus Christ forever. Sincerely, Paul.
King James
Romans 16:25–27 Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began, But now is made manifest, and by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations for the obedience of faith: To God only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ for ever. Amen.