Luke 23: Crucifixion of Jesus

If the Jews stoned Stephen, why did they take Jesus to Pilate?

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Luke 23:1–2 The entire council took Jesus to Pilate and began to accuse him. “We judged this man for misleading the people. He forbids paying taxes to Caesar and says he is the anointed king.”
King James
Luke 23:1–2 And the whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate. And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.

How much did Pilate know about Jesus and his accusers? Why did Pilate find Jesus “not guilty”?

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Luke 23:1–4 The entire council took Jesus to Pilate and began to accuse him. “We judged this man for misleading the people. He forbids paying taxes to Caesar and says he is the anointed king.”
Pilate asked him, “Are you the king of the Jews?”
“Yes, you could say that.”
Pilate said, “I do not find this man guilty of any crime.”
King James
Luke 23:1–4 And the whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate. And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King. And Pilate asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answered him and said, Thou sayest it. Then said Pilate to the chief priests and to the people, I find no fault in this man.

Why did Pilate send Jesus to Herod?

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Luke 23:5–7 They became more insistent. “He stirs up trouble among people from Galilee to Jerusalem with his teaching.”
When Pilate heard about Galilee, he questioned whether Jesus was Galilean. As soon as he ascertained that Jesus was under the jurisdiction of Herod Antipas, he sent him to Herod, who was in Jerusalem at the time.
King James
Luke 23:5–7 And they were the more fierce, saying, He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place. When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whether the man were a Galilaean. And as soon as he knew that he belonged unto Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself also was at Jerusalem at that time.

Why was Herod delighted to see Jesus? What kinds of questions did he ask? If he had seen Jesus do a miracle, what would he have done?

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Luke 23:8 Herod was delighted to see Jesus, because he had heard many stories and had wanted to meet him for a long time. He hoped to see him perform a miracle.
King James
Luke 23:8 And when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceeding glad: for he was desirous to see him of a long season, because he had heard many things of him; and he hoped to have seen some miracle done by him.

Why didn’t Jesus answer Herod’s questions?

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Luke 23:9 He asked many questions, but Jesus said nothing.
King James
Luke 23:9 Then he questioned with him in many words; but he answered him nothing.

Why were chief priests and teachers of the Law present when Jesus appeared before Herod?

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Luke 23:10 The chief priests and teachers of the Law shouted accusations against him.
King James
Luke 23:10 And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused him.

How was Jesus dressed when he next stood before Pilate?

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Luke 23:11 Herod and his soldiers made fun of Jesus, taunting and mocking him. They dressed him in a kingly robe and sent him back to Pilate.
King James
Luke 23:11 And Herod with his men of war set him at nought, and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate.

Why did Herod send Jesus back to Pilate? What about that action made Herod and Pilate good friends?

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Luke 23:11–12 Herod and his soldiers made fun of Jesus, taunting and mocking him. They dressed him in a kingly robe and sent him back to Pilate. On that day, Herod and Pilate, who had been enemies, became friends.
23:15 “Herod arrived at the same conclusion and sent him back to me. He has done nothing to deserve death.”
King James
Luke 23:11–12 And Herod with his men of war set him at nought, and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate. And the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together: for before they were at enmity between themselves.
23:15 No, nor yet Herod: for I sent you to him; and, lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto him.

By what means did Pilate gather the people? What percentage of the crowd might have been supporters of Jesus?

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Luke 23:13–14 Pilate called the people, including the chief priests and Jewish leaders, and said to them, “You brought this man to me, saying he was a troublemaker who misled the people. While you were here, I questioned him thoroughly concerning your accusations, and I found him not guilty.”
King James
Luke 23:13–14 And Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people, said unto them, Ye have brought this man unto me, as one that perverteth the people: and, behold, I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him:

Why did Pilate find Jesus “not guilty” of being a “troublemaker who misled the people”?

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Luke 23:13–15 Pilate called the people, including the chief priests and Jewish leaders, and said to them, “You brought this man to me, saying he was a troublemaker who misled the people. While you were here, I questioned him thoroughly concerning your accusations, and I found him not guilty. Herod arrived at the same conclusion and sent him back to me. He has done nothing to deserve death.”
King James
Luke 23:13–15 And Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people, said unto them, Ye have brought this man unto me, as one that perverteth the people: and, behold, I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him: No, nor yet Herod: for I sent you to him; and, lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto him.

Why did Pilate want to have Jesus flogged?

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Luke 23:16 “Therefore, I will order him flogged and released.”
23:22 For the third time, he defended Jesus. “Why? What crime has he committed? I find no reason to sentence him to death. Therefore, I will order him flogged and released.”
King James
Luke 23:16 I will therefore chastise him, and release him.
23:22 And he said unto them the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chastise him, and let him go.

Why did the people prefer the release of Barabbas instead of Jesus? Which person did Pilate want to release? Why?

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Luke 23:17–20 At every Passover feast, Pilate would release one prisoner to the people.
All the people shouted in protest, “Take this man away, and release Barabbas to us.”
Barabbas had been imprisoned for murder and leading a rebellion in Jerusalem.
Again, Pilate appealed to the crowd, because he wanted to release Jesus.
King James
Luke 23:17–20 (For of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast.) And they cried out all at once, saying, Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas: (Who for a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder, was cast into prison.) Pilate therefore, willing to release Jesus, spake again to them.

Why was the crowd so persistent and vocal in calling for Jesus’ crucifixion?

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Luke 23:21–23 “Crucify him,” the crowd screamed. “Crucify him!”
For the third time, he defended Jesus. “Why? What crime has he committed? I find no reason to sentence him to death. Therefore, I will order him flogged and released.”
The crowd went into an uproar, shouting for Jesus to be crucified. The violent cries of the people and chief priests prevailed.
King James
Luke 23:21–23 But they cried, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. And he said unto them the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chastise him, and let him go. And they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified. And the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed.

Why did Pilate yield to the cry of people whom he knew were unjustly prejudiced?

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Luke 23:24–25 So Pilate granted the sentence that the people demanded. To satisfy the people’s desire, he released Barabbas, who had been imprisoned for murder and rebellion, and ordered Jesus to be crucified.
King James
Luke 23:24–25 And Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they required. And he released unto them him that for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they had desired; but he delivered Jesus to their will.

Why was Simon from Cyrene forced to carry Jesus’ cross? What did Simon do afterward?

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Luke 23:26 On the way, the soldiers met Simon, a native of Cyrene, who had come from the country. They forced him to walk behind Jesus and carry his cross.
King James
Luke 23:26 And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus.

Why did Jesus tell his mourners that they should not cry for him?

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Luke 23:27–31 A large crowd followed, including many women who mourned and cried.
Jesus turned to them. “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not cry for me. Cry for yourselves and your children. The day will come when people will say, ‘Blessed are the childless who have never nursed a baby.’ They will say to the mountains, ‘Fall on us,’ and beg the hills to hide them. If they do these things to a living tree, what will they do to you who are dry wood?”
King James
Luke 23:27–31 And there followed him a great company of people, and of women, which also bewailed and lamented him. But Jesus turning unto them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children. For, behold, the days are coming, in the which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the paps which never gave suck. Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us. For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?

What did the criminals know about Jesus?

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Luke 23:32–33 Two others, both criminals, were taken with Jesus to be crucified. When the soldiers reached the place called The Skull, they nailed Jesus to the cross. The criminals were crucified with him, one on the right, the other on the left.
23:39–41 One of the criminals joined in the mockery. “If you are the Messiah, save yourself, and save us too.”
The second criminal said to the first, “Don’t you fear God since you have been sentenced to the same death? We deserve our punishment, but this man has done nothing wrong.”
King James
Luke 23:32–33 And there were also two other, malefactors, led with him to be put to death. And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.
23:39–41 And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us. But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation? And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss.

Why was Jesus the central figure in the crucifixions?

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Luke 23:33 When the soldiers reached the place called The Skull, they nailed Jesus to the cross. The criminals were crucified with him, one on the right, the other on the left.
King James
Luke 23:33 And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.

Who did Jesus forgive, and why?

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Luke 23:34 “Father, forgive them,” Jesus prayed, “because they do not know what they are doing.”
The soldiers threw dice for the fair dividing of his clothes.
King James
Luke 23:34 Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.

Why did soldiers gamble for Jesus’ clothes? What made the clothes valuable?

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Luke 23:34 “Father, forgive them,” Jesus prayed, “because they do not know what they are doing.”
The soldiers threw dice for the fair dividing of his clothes.
King James
Luke 23:34 Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.

Why did people mock Jesus? If he had saved himself, what would they have done?

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Luke 23:35–37 The people stood there, watching.
The Jewish leaders mocked him. “He saved others,” they said. “Let’s see if he can save himself. Then we’ll know if he’s really the Messiah, the chosen of God.”
The soldiers also mocked him. They offered him sour wine and said, “If you are the king of the Jews, save yourself.”
King James
Luke 23:35–37 And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God. And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar, and saying, If thou be the king of the Jews, save thyself.

Why did Pilate have the message written: “This is the king of the Jews”?

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Luke 23:38 A sign above his head said, “This is the king of the Jews.”
King James
Luke 23:38 And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.

What earned one criminal’s place in paradise?

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Luke 23:42–43 He said to Jesus, “Sir, remember me when you enter your Kingdom.”
“I guarantee,” Jesus said, “you will be with me in paradise today.”
King James
Luke 23:42–43 And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom. And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise.

What caused the three hours of darkness over the land?

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Luke 23:44–45 From about noon until three o’clock, darkness covered the land. The sun gave no light, and the Temple veil ripped in two.
King James
Luke 23:44–45 And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst.

What ripped the Temple veil?

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Luke 23:45 The sun gave no light, and the Temple veil ripped in two.
King James
Luke 23:45 And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst.

How did Jesus willfully die?

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Luke 23:46 Jesus screamed, “Father, I place my life in your hands,” and he quit breathing.
King James
Luke 23:46 And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.

What did the centurion see that caused him to recognize Jesus’ innocence?

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Luke 23:47 When the centurion saw what had happened, he honored God by saying, “Truly, this man was innocent.”
King James
Luke 23:47 Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man.

After people saw Jesus die, why were they sorrowful? Why did those who didn’t leave “watch from a distance”?

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Luke 23:48–49 The crowd that had come to witness the crucifixion left in deep sorrow after they saw Jesus die. But those who knew Jesus, including the women who had followed from Galilee, continued to watch from a distance.
King James
Luke 23:48–49 And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned. And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.

What happened to make Joseph of Arimathea a follower of Jesus?

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Luke 23:50–51 A good and righteous man named Joseph, a member of the council, disagreed with the decisions and actions of the other council members. He was from the Jewish city of Arimathea and waited for the Kingdom of God.
King James
Luke 23:50–51 And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counsellor; and he was a good man, and a just: (The same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them;) he was of Arimathaea, a city of the Jews: who also himself waited for the kingdom of God.

Why did Joseph ask for Jesus’ body? What would have happened otherwise?

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Luke 23:52–53 He went before Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then he took the body down from the cross, wrapped it in linen, and laid it in an unused tomb that was cut into the rock.
King James
Luke 23:52–53 This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid.

Who were present at Jesus’ burial?

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Luke 23:54–55 It was the day of preparation, almost at sundown that would begin the Sabbath. The women from Galilee followed him and saw the tomb where Jesus’ body was placed.
King James
Luke 23:54–55 And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on. And the women also, which came with him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the sepulchre, and how his body was laid.

Why did the women prepare spices and ointments but not go back to the tomb?

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Luke 23:56 They went home to prepare spices and ointments but did not go back to the tomb because it was the Sabbath day of rest required by the Law.
King James
Luke 23:56 And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment.