John 18: Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus

At what time of day did Jesus and his disciples enter the garden?

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John 18:1 After praying, Jesus went across the Kidron Valley with his disciples and entered the garden there.
King James
John 18:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

If Judas left Jesus in the upper room of a house in Jerusalem, how did he know where Jesus would be later on?

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John 18:2 Judas, the traitor, knew the place where Jesus often retired with his disciples.
King James
John 18:2 And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples.

After Judas met the chief priests, how long did it take to gather the mob of men with lamps, torches, and swords?

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John 18:3 He was followed by a mob of men, including guards from the chief priests and Pharisees, carrying lamps, torches, and swords.
King James
John 18:3 Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.

Why did John, unlike other Gospel writers, tell us about the men falling back after Jesus identified himself?  Why did they react that way?

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John 18:4–6 Jesus was fully aware of all that would happen to him and stepped forward to greet the men. “Who are you looking for?”
“Jesus of Nazareth.”
“I am he.”
Judas, the traitor, stood there with the mob.
The moment Jesus said, “I am he,” the mob backed away and fell to the ground.
King James
John 18:4–6 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye? They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am he. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood with them. As soon then as he had said unto them, I am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground.

After Jesus asked freedom for his disciples, what did they do?

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John 18:7–11 Jesus again said, “Who are you looking for?”
“Jesus of Nazareth.”
“I have already told you who I am. Since I am the one you want, let these others go.”
This fulfilled what he had said earlier: None of those you gave me has been lost.
Simon Peter drew a sword and cut off the right ear of Malchus, the high priest’s servant.
Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword back. Shall I not drink the cup of suffering that my Father has given to me?”
King James
John 18:7–11 Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way: That the saying might be fulfilled, which he spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none. Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest’s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus. Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?

Why did Peter cut off the high priest’s servant’s ear?

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John 18:10–11 Simon Peter drew a sword and cut off the right ear of Malchus, the high priest’s servant.
Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword back. Shall I not drink the cup of suffering that my Father has given to me?”
King James
John 18:10–11 Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest’s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus. Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?

What was Jesus’ journey like, when he waked from Gethsemane to the mansion belonging to Annas?

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John 18:12–13 The mob leader and Jewish guards grabbed and bound Jesus. They took him to Annas, the father-in-law of Caiaphas, who was the high priest at that time.
King James
John 18:12–13 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him, and led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year.

Who was present when Jesus was brought before Annas?

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John 18:14–16 Caiaphas was the one who had told the Jewish leaders, “One man must die for the people so the whole nation will not be destroyed.”
Simon Peter followed Jesus.
Another disciple also followed, who was known to the high priest. He was allowed to enter the high priest’s courtyard with Jesus.
Peter waited outside near the gate until the other disciple spoke to the servant girl at the door and brought him in.
King James
John 18:14–16 Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people. And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest. But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter.

Why was Peter allowed into the courtyard?

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John 18:15–17 Simon Peter followed Jesus.
Another disciple also followed, who was known to the high priest. He was allowed to enter the high priest’s courtyard with Jesus.
Peter waited outside near the gate until the other disciple spoke to the servant girl at the door and brought him in.
The girl at the door said to Peter, “Are you one of this man’s disciples too?”
Peter said, “No, I am not.”
King James
John 18:15–17 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest. But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter. Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art not thou also one of this man’s disciples? He saith, I am not.

How close was Peter to Jesus and the hearing? If he was out in the courtyard, how could he know what was happening inside?

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John 18:18 The servants and guards had made a fire and gathered to warm themselves. Peter stood with them and warmed himself.
18:25 While Simon Peter was standing there, warming himself, someone said, “Aren’t you one of his disciples?”
He denied it, saying, “No, I am not.”
King James
John 18:18 And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself.
18:25 And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not.

How much did Annas know about Jesus? What kind of answer was Annas seeking with his question?

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John 18:19–21 Annas asked Jesus about his disciples and what he had been teaching.
“I have spoken openly before everyone,” Jesus said. “I have taught in the synagogues and in the Temple, wherever the people gather. I have said nothing in secret, so why question me? Ask those who were there and heard me speak. They know what I said.”
King James
John 18:19–21 The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine. Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing. Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said.

Why was Jesus’ reply politically incorrect?

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John 18:22–23 One of the guards slapped Jesus. “That is not the way you should answer the high priest.”
“If I said something wrong,” Jesus said, “testify against me. But if I have spoken the truth, why do you strike me?”
King James
John 18:22–23 And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so? Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me?

Why did Annas send Jesus to Caiphas?

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John 18:24 Annas then sent Jesus, his hands still tied, to Caiaphas, the high priest.
King James
John 18:24 Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.

If Peter had twice been confronted about his relationship with Jesus, why didn’t he leave the courtyard before it could happen again?

Author’s Thoughts
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John 18:25–27 While Simon Peter was standing there, warming himself, someone said, “Aren’t you one of his disciples?”
He denied it, saying, “No, I am not.”
One of the high priest’s servants, a relative of the one whose ear Peter had cut off, said, “Didn’t I see you in the garden with him?”
Again, Peter denied any connection with Jesus. Immediately, a rooster crowed.
King James
John 18:25–27 And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not. One of the servants of the high priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him? Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew.

Why didn’t the religious leaders want to go inside to meet Pilate? Why did Pilate go out to meet them?

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John 18:28–30 Early in the morning, they led Jesus from Caiaphas to the headquarters of the Roman governor. They stayed outside to keep from being defiled, which would prevent them from eating the Passover meal.
Pilate walked out to them. “What charges do you bring against this man?”
“If he were not a criminal, we would not have brought him to you.”
King James
John 18:28–30 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover. Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring ye against this man? They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee.

Why didn’t Pilate want to hear the case against Jesus?

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John 18:31 “You take him and judge him according to your own law.”
“But it is not lawful for us to put anyone to death,” the Jews said.
King James
John 18:31 Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death:

Did this happen because Jesus said it would? Or was it because he knew it would happen that he said it would? Why?

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John 18:32 (This happened so the way Jesus had said he would die would come to pass.)
King James
John 18:32 That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should die.

How much did Pilate know about Jesus? What was the reason for Pilate’s the question?

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John 18:33–35 Pilate went inside and summoned Jesus. “Are you the king of the Jews?”
“Is that your own question, or have others told you about me?”
“Am I a Jew? Your own people and your chief priests delivered you to me. What have you done?”
King James
John 18:33–35 Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews? Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me? Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done?

If Jesus’ Kingdom is not of this world, what is it, where is it, and how is it different from the world’s kingdoms?

Author’s Thoughts
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Mark 9:1 “I guarantee, some of you standing here will not die before they see the Kingdom of God come with power.”
Luke 17:21 “No one will say, ‘Here it is,’ or, ‘It’s right over there.’ That is because the Kingdom of God is within you.”
John 18:36 “My Kingdom is not of this world,” Jesus said. “If it were, my disciples would have fought to prevent my arrest by the Jews. No, my Kingdom is not from here.”
Romans 14:17 The Kingdom of God is not built upon what we eat or drink. It’s built upon our relationship with him—each of us following the direction of the Holy Spirit in righteousness, peace, and joy.
King James
Mark 9:1 And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That there be some of them that stand here, which shall not taste of death, till they have seen the kingdom of God come with power.
Luke 17:21 Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the kingdom of God is within you.
John 18:36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.
Romans 14:17 For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.

By what means and authority is Jesus made King?

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John 18:37 “Are you a king, then?”
Jesus said, “Yes, you could say that. For that reason, I was born. I came into this world to testify to the truth. Everyone who wants the truth hears my voice.”
King James
John 18:37 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.

What led Pilate to say Jesus was innocent of all crimes?

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John 18:38 “What is truth?” Pilate went back out to the Jews. “I do not find this man guilty of any crime.
King James
John 18:38 Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all.

Matthew tells us that Pilate gave people the choice of releasing either Jesus or Barabbas. Why did he introduce Barabbas’s name? Why did he refer to Jesus as “king of the Jews?

Author’s Thoughts
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Matthew 27:17 So when the people had gathered, Pilate said to them, “Which one do you want me to release to you—Barabbas, or Jesus, who is called the Messiah?”
John 18:39–40 “Each year at Passover,” Pilate said to the crowd, “you customarily ask me to release a prisoner. Shall I release to you the king of the Jews?”
 “No, not this man. We want Barabbas,” they shouted.
Barabbas was a criminal.
King James
Matthew 27:17 Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate said unto them, Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ?
John 18:39–40 But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews? Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.