30 The disciples don’t follow religious tradition.

Deuteronomy 5:14; 23:25; 1 Samuel 21:1–6; Hosea 6:6; Matthew 9:14–17; 12:1–8; Mark 2:18–28; Luke 5:33–39; 6:1–5

How would people know that Jesus’ disciples had never fasted (Mark 2:18)?

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For what reasons did people typically fast (Mark 2:18)?

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For what reasons did people typically feast (Mark 2:18)?

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Why did the disciples have more reasons to feast than to fast (Mark 2:19–20)?

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What can we learn from the problem with putting a new patch on old clothes or new wine into old wineskins (Mark 2:21–22)?

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What right did the disciples have to eat from a field that didn’t belong to them (Mark 2:23)?

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Why did the Pharisees complain when they saw Jesus’ disciples picking grain to eat (Mark 2:24)?

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What did the actions of David and his men have to do with Jesus’ disciples picking grain (Matthew 12:5–7)?

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What does it mean to “show love, not make sacrifices” (Hosea 6:6; Matthew 12:7)?

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If keeping the Sabbath was God’s Law, why was it permitted to make exceptions (Mark 2:27)?

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Why was Jesus saying he was “Lord of the Sabbath” not saying he was “above the Law” (Mark 2:28)?

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One day, when the Pharisees and followers of John the Baptizer were fasting, some people said to Jesus, “Why do the Pharisees and John’s disciples fast, but your disciples never do?”

Eyewitness

Matthew 9:14 One day, the followers of John the Baptizer said to Jesus, “Why do we and the Pharisees fast, but your disciples never do?”
Mark 2:18 One day, when the Pharisees and followers of John the Baptizer were fasting, some people said to Jesus, “Why do the Pharisees and John’s disciples fast, but your disciples never do?”
Luke 5:33 One day, some people said to Jesus, “Why do the Pharisees and John’s disciples fast, but your disciples never do?”
King James

Matthew 9:14 Then came to him the disciples of John, saying, Why do we and the Pharisees fast oft, but thy disciples fast not?
Mark 2:18 And the disciples of John and of the Pharisees used to fast: and they come and say unto him, Why do the disciples of John and of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not?
Luke 5:33 And they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast often, and make prayers, and likewise the disciples of the Pharisees; but thine eat and drink?

Jesus said, “At a wedding, the friends of the bridegroom do not go without eating while he is still with them. But the day will come when he will be gone. Then they will fast.”

Eyewitness

Matthew 9:15 Jesus said, “At a wedding, the friends of the bridegroom do not go without eating while he is still with them. But the day will come when he will be gone. Then they will fast.”
Mark 2:19–20 Jesus said, “At a wedding, the friends of the bridegroom do not go without eating while he is still with them. But the day will come when he will be gone. Then they will fast.
Luke 5:34–35 Jesus said, “At a wedding, the friends of the bridegroom do not go without eating while he is still with them. But the day will come when he will be gone. Then they will fast.”
King James

Matthew 9:15 And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bridechamber mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? but the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall they fast.
Mark 2:19–20 And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them? as long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days.
Luke 5:34–35 And he said unto them, Can ye make the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days.

He gave this illustration: “No one uses a piece of new cloth to patch old clothes. The patch would shrink, pull away from the old, and make the tear worse.

Eyewitness

Matthew 9:16 “No one uses a piece of new cloth to patch old clothes. The patch would shrink, pull away from the old, and make the tear worse.
Mark 2:21 “No one uses a piece of new cloth to patch old clothes. The patch would shrink, pull away from the old, and make the tear worse.
Luke 5:36 He gave this illustration: “No one uses a piece of new cloth to patch old clothes. The patch would shrink, pull away from the old, and make the tear worse.
King James

Matthew 9:16 No man putteth a piece of new cloth unto an old garment, for that which is put in to fill it up taketh from the garment, and the rent is made worse.
Mark 2:21 No man also seweth a piece of new cloth on an old garment: else the new piece that filled it up taketh away from the old, and the rent is made worse.
Luke 5:36 And he spake also a parable unto them; No man putteth a piece of a new garment upon an old; if otherwise, then both the new maketh a rent, and the piece that was taken out of the new agreeth not with the old.

“Men do not pour new wine into old skins. If they did, the wineskin would burst, ruining both the wine and the wineskin. New wine is always kept in fresh skins so both are preserved. After tasting fine, aged wine, no one would want new, because the old is better.”

Eyewitness

Matthew 9:17 “Men do not pour new wine into old skins. If they did, the wineskin would burst, ruining both the wine and the wineskin. New wine is always kept in fresh skins so both are preserved.”
Mark 2:22 “Men do not pour new wine into old skins. If they did, the wineskin would burst, ruining both the wine and the wineskin. New wine is always kept in fresh skins so both are preserved.”
Luke 5:37–39 “Men do not pour new wine into old skins. If they did, the wineskin would burst, ruining both the wine and the wineskin. New wine is always kept in fresh skins so both are preserved. After tasting fine, aged wine, no one would want new, because the old is better.”)
King James

Matthew 9:17 Neither do men put new wine into old bottles: else the bottles break, and the wine runneth out, and the bottles perish: but they put new wine into new bottles, and both are preserved.
Mark 2:22 And no man putteth new wine into old bottles: else the new wine doth burst the bottles, and the wine is spilled, and the bottles will be marred: but new wine must be put into new bottles.
Luke 5:37–39 And no man putteth new wine into old bottles; else the new wine will burst the bottles, and be spilled, and the bottles shall perish. But new wine must be put into new bottles; and both are preserved. No man also having drunk old wine straightway desireth new: for he saith, The old is better.

On a Sabbath day, Jesus went through the grain fields. His disciples were hungry, so they picked some heads of grain. They rubbed off the husks with their hands and ate the kernels.

Eyewitness

Deuteronomy 23:25 In a field belonging to someone else, you may pick some heads of grain with your hands, but never cut the stalks with a sickle.
Matthew 12:1 On a Sabbath day, Jesus went through the grain fields. His disciples were hungry, so they picked some heads of grain. They rubbed off the husks with their hands and ate the kernels.
Mark 2:23 On a Sabbath day, Jesus went through the grain fields. His disciples picked some heads of grain.
Luke 6:1 On a Sabbath day, Jesus went through the grain fields. His disciples picked some heads of grain. They rubbed off the husks with their hands and ate the kernels.
King James

Deuteronomy 23:25 If you go into your neighbor’s standing grain, ayou may pluck the ears with your hand, but you shall not put a sickle to your neighbor’s standing grain.
Matthew 12:1 At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were an hungred, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat.
Mark 2:23 And it came to pass, that he went through the corn fields on the sabbath day; and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of corn.
Luke 6:1 And it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first, that he went through the corn fields; and his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands.

When the Pharisees saw them, they said to Jesus, “Look! Your disciples are doing work that is not permitted on the Sabbath.”

Eyewitness

Deuteronomy 5:14 The seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. On that day, no person or animal shall do any work—neither son, daughter, servant, nor stranger within your city gates—neither an ox, donkey, nor any of your cattle. Your servants are to rest, same as you.
Matthew 12:2 When the Pharisees saw them, they said to Jesus, “Look! Your disciples are doing work that is not permitted on the Sabbath.”
Mark 2:24 When the Pharisees saw them, they said to Jesus, “Look! Your disciples are doing work that is not permitted on the Sabbath.”
Luke 6:2 The Pharisees said, “Why are you doing work that is not permitted on the Sabbath?”
King James

Deuteronomy 5:14 But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; that thy manservant and thy maidservant may rest as well as thou.
Matthew 12:2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath day.
Mark 2:24 And the Pharisees said unto him, Behold, why do they on the sabbath day that which is not lawful?
Luke 6:2 And certain of the Pharisees said unto them, Why do ye that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath days?

“Haven’t you read,” Jesus said, “what David and his men did when they were hungry? When Abiathar was high priest, David entered the house of God and ate the sacred bread that only the priests were allowed to eat. He also gave loaves to his men.

Eyewitness

1 Samuel 21:1–6 At Nob, David went to see Abimelech the priest, who was fearful.
“No one is with you,” Abimelech said. “Why are you alone?”
“The king has sent me on a covert mission,” David said. “I am to tell no one about the nature of this matter, and I have young men stationed at a hidden location. I need five loaves of bread or whatever you have to eat. Can you help me?”
“I have only the sacred loaves,” Abimelech said, “which I can give only if the men have kept themselves from women.”
“I swear,” David said, “no woman has been in our company for the last three days, ever since this campaign began. On a normal mission, they would keep themselves pure, but even more so, now.”
So the priest removed from before the Lord the sacred bread made fresh that day and gave the loaves to David.
Matthew 12:3–4 “Haven’t you read,” Jesus said, “what David and his men did when they were hungry? He entered the house of God and ate the sacred bread that only the priests were allowed to eat. He also gave loaves to his men.
Mark 2:25–26 “Haven’t you read,” Jesus said, “what David and his men did when they were hungry? When Abiathar was high priest, David entered the house of God and ate the sacred bread that only the priests were allowed to eat. He also gave loaves to his men.
Luke 6:3–4 “Haven’t you read,” Jesus said, “what David and his men did when they were hungry? He entered the house of God and ate the sacred bread that only the priests were allowed to eat. He also gave loaves to his men.
King James

1 Samuel 21:1–6 Then came David to Nob to Ahimelech the priest: and Ahimelech was afraid at the meeting of David, and said unto him, Why art thou alone, and no man with thee?
And David said unto Ahimelech the priest, The king hath commanded me a business, and hath said unto me, Let no man know any thing of the business whereabout I send thee, and what I have commanded thee: and I have appointed my servants to such and such a place. Now therefore what is under thine hand? give me five loaves of bread in mine hand, or what there is present.
And the priest answered David, and said, There is no common bread under mine hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from women.
And David answered the priest, and said unto him, Of a truth women have been kept from us about these three days, since I came out, and the vessels of the young men are holy, and the bread is in a manner common, yea, though it were sanctified this day in the vessel.
So the priest gave him hallowed bread: for there was no bread there but the shewbread, that was taken from before the Lord, to put hot bread in the day when it was taken away.
Matthew 12:3–4 But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was an hungred, and they that were with him; How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?
Mark 2:25–26 And he said unto them, Have ye never read what David did, when he had need, and was an hungred, he, and they that were with him? How he went into the house of God in the days of Abiathar the high priest, and did eat the shewbread, which is not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave also to them which were with him?
Luke 6:3–4 And Jesus answering them said, Have ye not read so much as this, whaDavid did, when himself was an hungred, and they which were with him; How he went into the house of God, and did take and eat the shewbread, and gave also to them that were with him; which it is not lawful to eat but for the priests alone?

“Haven’t you read in the Law that the Temple priests desecrate the Sabbath but are innocent? I tell you, one greater than the Temple is here. If you knew what the prophet meant when he said, It was your expression of love I wanted, not sacrifices, you would not condemn these innocent men.

Eyewitness

Hosea 6:6 I wanted you to show love, not make sacrifices, to know God, not give burnt offerings.
Matthew 12:7 “If you knew what the prophet meant when he said, I wanted you to show love, not make sacrifices, you would not condemn these innocent men.
King James

Hosea 6:6 For I desired mercy, and not sacrifice; and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings.
Matthew 12:7 But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless.

“The Sabbath was made to meet the needs of the people, not people to meet the requirements of the Sabbath. The Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.”

Eyewitness

Matthew 12:8 “The Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.”
Mark 2:27–28 “The Sabbath was made to meet the needs of the people, not people to meet the requirements of the Sabbath. The Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.”
Luke 6:5 “The Son of Man is Lord, even of the Sabbath.”
King James

Matthew 12:8 For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day.
Mark 2:27–28 And he said unto them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath: Therefore the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.
Luke 6:5 And he said unto them, That the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.