144 Jesus is nailed to the cross and dies.

Psalms 22:16–18; 69:21; Isaiah 53:12; Matthew 27:35–56; Mark 15:24–31; Luke 23:33–49; John 19:18–30

What reason did Jesus give for the forgiveness of those who crucified him (Luke 23:34)?

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If mockers could count Jesus ribs, how well was Jesus clothed when he hung on the cross (Psalm 22:16)?

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Why did the soldiers throw dice to see who would get Jesus’ clothes (John 19:23–24)?

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Why did the soldiers throw dice to see who would get Jesus’ clothes (John 19:23–24)?

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Why did Pilate order the sign to be posted above Jesus’ head (Matthew 27:37)?

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Why was Pilate unwilling to change the sign posted above Jesus (John 19:21–22)?

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Mocking, people invited Jesus to come down from the cross (Matthew 27:39–40). What do you think would have happened if he had?

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What purpose did Jewish leaders have in mocking Jesus (Matthew 27:41–43)?

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How do you think Jesus felt when he heard so many people mocking him (Luke 23:36–37)?

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What motivated one criminal to mock Jesus (Luke 23:39)?

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How much did the two criminals know about Jesus (Luke 23:40–42)?

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When one criminal said to Jesus, “Remember me,” what was he thinking Jesus might do (Luke 23:40)?

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What made it possible for the criminal on the cross to be present with Jesus after death (Luke 23:43)?

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When Jesus said the criminal would be with him in paradise, what place was he referring to (Luke 23:43)?

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Which disciples saw Jesus crucified (John 19:25)? Where were the others?

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Why did Jesus give his mother to John’s care and not to the oldest brother, James (John 19:25)?

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What is the best rendering of Jesus crying out in Aramaic, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani” (Matthew 27:46–47)?

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After refusing sour wine earlier, why did Jesus ask for it now (John 19:28–29)?

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What was the cause of Jesus’ death (John 19:30)?

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Why was the Temple veil ripped apart after Jesus’ death (Matthew 27:51)?

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What caused the centurion and his guards to fear for their lives (Matthew 27:54)?

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After Jesus died, what was the attitude of the spectators (Luke 23:48)?

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Why did those who knew Jesus choose not to leave after Jesus had died (Matthew 27:55–56)?

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At nine o’clock, when the soldiers reached the place called The Skull, they nailed Jesus to the cross.

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:35 After the soldiers nailed Jesus to the cross, they threw dice for the fair dividing of his clothes.
Mark 15:24–25 After the soldiers nailed Jesus to the cross, they threw dice for the fair dividing of his clothes. It was nine o’clock when he was crucified.
Luke 23:33 When the soldiers reached the place called The Skull, they nailed Jesus to the cross. The criminals were crucified with him, one on the right, the other on the left.
John 19:18 The soldiers nailed Jesus to the cross, and two others with him, one on the right, the other on the left.
King James

Matthew 27:35 And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.
Mark 15:24–25 And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take. And it was the third hour, and they crucified him.
Luke 23:33 And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.
John 19:18 Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.

“Father, forgive them,” Jesus prayed, “because they do not know what they are doing.”

Eyewitness

Luke 23:34 “Father, forgive them,” Jesus prayed, “because they do not know what they are doing.” The soldiers threw dice for the fair dividing of his clothes.
King James

Luke 23:34 Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.

Like a pack of dogs, the wicked gathered to see the piercing of his hands and feet. They looked at him and gloated as they counted his ribs.

Eyewitness

Psalm 22:16–17 Like a pack of dogs, my enemies have surrounded me. The wicked have gathered to pierce my hands and feet. I can count my ribs. My enemies looked at me and gloated.
Luke 23:35 The people stood there, watching. The Jewish leaders mocked him. “He saved others,” they said. “Let’s see if he can save himself. Then we’ll know if he’s really the Messiah, the chosen of God.”
King James

Psalm 22:16–17 For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet. I may tell all my bones: they look and stare upon me.
Luke 23:35 And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God.

The soldiers sat down to keep guard over him. They divided his garments among the four of them. The tunic was a single woven piece, without seams. Rather than rip it, they decided to gamble to determine its rightful owner. This fulfilled the scripture that says, They divided my clothes and threw dice for my garment.

Eyewitness

Psalm 22:18 They divided my clothes and threw dice for my garment.
Matthew 27:35–36 After the soldiers nailed Jesus to the cross, they threw dice for the fair dividing of his clothes. They sat down to keep guard over him.
Mark 15:24 After the soldiers nailed Jesus to the cross, they threw dice for the fair dividing of his clothes.
Luke 23:34 “Father, forgive them,” Jesus prayed, “because they do not know what they are doing.” The soldiers threw dice for the fair dividing of his clothes.
John 19:23–24 After the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they divided his garments among the four of them. The tunic was a single woven piece, without seams. Rather than rip it, they decided to gamble to determine its rightful owner. This fulfilled the scripture that says, They divided my clothes and threw dice for my garment.
King James

Psalm 22:18 They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture.
Matthew 27:35–36 And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots. And sitting down they watched him there;
Mark 15:24 And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take.
Luke 23:34 Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.
John 19:23–24 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did.

Two criminals were crucified with Jesus, one on the right, the other on the left. This fulfilled the scripture that says, He was treated as one of the criminals.

Eyewitness

Isaiah 53:12 Therefore, I will give him the honor of a champion and give him the portion of a king because he gave himself to die. He was treated as one of the criminals. So he took the place of many criminals to bear their sin and seek their pardon.
Matthew 27:38 Two criminals were crucified with him, one on the right, the other on the left.
Mark 15:27–28 Two criminals were crucified with him, one on the right, the other on the left. This fulfilled the scripture that says, He was treated as one of the criminals.
Luke 23:33 When the soldiers reached the place called The Skull, they nailed Jesus to the cross. The criminals were crucified with him, one on the right, the other on the left.
John 19:18 The soldiers nailed Jesus to the cross, and two others with him, one on the right, the other on the left.
King James

Isaiah 53:12 Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured out his soul unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.
Matthew 27:38 Then were there two thieves crucified with him, one on the right hand, and another on the left.
Mark 15:27–28 And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand, and the other on his left. And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, And he was numbered with the transgressors.
Luke 23:33 And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.
John 19:18 Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.

Pilate ordered the posting of a sign on the cross that said, “Jesus of Nazareth, the king of the Jews.” Many of the Jews read the sign, because the crucifixion took place near Jerusalem and the message was written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin.

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:37 Above his head, they had posted a sign to show the charge against him: “This is Jesus, king of the Jews.”
Mark 15:26 The sign to show the charge against him said, “The king of the Jews.”
Luke 23:38 A sign above his head said, “This is the king of the Jews.”
John 19:19–20 Pilate ordered the posting of a sign on the cross that said, “Jesus of Nazareth, the king of the Jews.” Many of the Jews read the sign, because the crucifixion took place near Jerusalem and the message was written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin.
King James

Matthew 27:37 And set up over his head his accusation written, THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS.
Mark 15:26 And the superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS.
Luke 23:38 And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.
John 19:19–20 And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS. This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.

The chief priests said to Pilate. “You should not have written, ‘The king of the Jews,’ but rather, ‘He claimed to be king of the Jews.’”

Eyewitness

John 19:21 The chief priests said to Pilate. “You should not have written, ‘The king of the Jews,’ but rather, ‘He claimed to be king of the Jews.'”
King James

John 19:21 Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews.

Pilate said, “What I have written, I have written.”

Eyewitness

John 19:22 Pilate said, “What I have written, I have written.”
King James

John 19:22 Pilate answered, What I have written I have written.

At the cross, people who walked by insulted him and shook their heads. “You said you could tear down the Temple and rebuild it in three days. If you have such power, save yourself. If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross.”

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:39–40 People who walked by insulted him and shook their heads. “You said you could tear down the Temple and rebuild it in three days. If you have such power, save yourself. If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross.”
Mark 15:29–30 People who walked by insulted him and shook their heads. “You said you could tear down the Temple and rebuild it in three days. If you have such power, save yourself. Come down from the cross.”
King James

Matthew 27:39–40 And they that passed by reviled him, wagging their heads, And saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself. If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross.
Mark 15:29–30 And they that passed by railed on him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, Save thyself, and come down from the cross.

In a similar manner, the chief priests, teachers of the Law, and other Jewish leaders mocked him. “He saved others,” they said. ``Let’s see if he can save himself. If he is the king of Israel, let him come down from the cross. Then we will believe he is who he says he is, the Messiah, the chosen of God. He trusted God, so let God deliver him now if he cares anything about him. He said he was the Son of God.”

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:41–43 In a similar manner, the chief priests, teachers of the Law, and other Jewish leaders mocked him. “He saved others,” they said. “Let’s see if he can save himself. If he is the king of Israel, let him come down from the cross. Then we will believe he is who he says he is. He trusted God, so let God deliver him now if he cares anything about him. He said he was the Son of God.”
Mark 15:31–32 In a similar manner, the chief priests and teachers of the Law mocked him. “He saved others,” they said. “Let’s see if he can save himself. If he is the king of Israel, let him come down from the cross. Then we will believe he is who he says he is. The criminals who were crucified with him joined in the mockery.
Luke 23:35 The people stood there, watching. The Jewish leaders mocked him. “He saved others,” they said. “Let’s see if he can save himself. Then we’ll know if he’s really the Messiah, the chosen of God.”
King James

Matthew 27:41–43 Likewise also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said, He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him. He trusted in God; let him deliver him now, if he will have him: for he said, I am the Son of God.
Mark 15:31–32 Likewise also the chief priests mocking said among themselves with the scribes, He saved others; himself he cannot save. Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reviled him.
Luke 23:35 And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God.

The soldiers also mocked him. They offered him sour wine and said, “If you are the king of the Jews, save yourself.”

Eyewitness

Luke 23:36–37 The soldiers also mocked him. They offered him sour wine and said, “If you are the king of the Jews, save yourself.”
King James

Luke 23:36–37 And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar, And saying, If thou be the king of the Jews, save thyself.

One of the criminals joined in the mockery. “If you are the Messiah, save yourself, and save us too.”

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:44 The criminals who were crucified with him joined in the mockery.
Mark 15:32 “If he is the king of Israel, let him come down from the cross. Then we will believe he is who he says he is. The criminals who were crucified with him joined in the mockery.
Luke 23:39 One of the criminals joined in the mockery. “If you are the Messiah, save yourself, and save us too.”
King James

Matthew 27:44 The thieves also, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth.
Mark 15:32 Let Christ the King of Israel descend now from the cross, that we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him reviled him.
Luke 23:39 And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us.

The second criminal said to the first, “Don’t you fear God since you have been sentenced to the same death? We deserve our punishment, but this man has done nothing wrong.” He said to Jesus, “Sir, remember me when you enter your Kingdom.”

Eyewitness

Luke 23:40–42 The second criminal said to the first, “Don’t you fear God since you have been sentenced to the same death? We deserve our punishment, but this man has done nothing wrong.” He said to Jesus, “Sir, remember me when you enter your Kingdom.”
King James

Luke 23:40–42 But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation? And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss. And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom.

“I guarantee,” Jesus said, “you will be with me in paradise today.”

Eyewitness

Luke 23:43 “I guarantee,” Jesus said, “you will be with me in paradise today.”
King James

Luke 23:43 And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise.

Jesus’ mother, his mother’s sister Mary Magdalene, and Mary the wife of Clopas, stood near the cross. When Jesus saw his mother standing next to his beloved disciple, he said, “Woman, he is your son.” To the disciple, he said, “She is your mother.” From that moment, the disciple took her to live in his own home.

Eyewitness

John 19:25–27 Jesus’ mother, his mother’s sister, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the wife of Clopas stood near the cross. When Jesus saw his mother standing next to his beloved disciple, he said, “Woman, he is your son.” To the disciple, he said, “She is your mother.” From that moment, the disciple took her to live in his own home.
King James

John 19:25–27 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son! Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home.

From about noon until three o’clock, darkness covered the land. The sun gave no light.

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:45 From noon until three o’clock, darkness covered the land.
Mark 15:33 From noon until three o’clock, darkness covered the land.
Luke 23:44–45 From about noon until three o’clock, darkness covered the land. The sun gave no light, and the Temple veil ripped in two.
King James

Matthew 27:45 Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour.
Mark 15:33 And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.
Luke 23:44–45 And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst.

At three o’clock, after everything was finished, Jesus screamed, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani,” which means “My God, my God, for this I was born.”

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:46 At three o’clock, Jesus screamed, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani,” which means “My God, my God, for this I was born.”
Mark 15:34 At three o’clock, Jesus screamed, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani,” which means “My God, my God, for this I was born.”
King James

Matthew 27:46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
Mark 15:34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?

Some of those standing there said, “Listen! He calls for Elijah.”

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:47 Some of those standing there said, “He calls for Elijah.”
Mark 15:35 Some of those standing there said, “Listen! He calls for Elijah.”
King James

Matthew 27:47 Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, said, This man calleth for Elias.
Mark 15:35 And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias.

Jesus said, “I am thirsty,” so the scripture would be fulfilled: They gave me bitterness for food and sour wine to drink.

Eyewitness

Psalm 69:21 They gave me bitterness for food and sour wine to drink.
John 19:28 Later, after everything was finished, he said, “I am thirsty,” so the scripture would be fulfilled.
King James

Psalm 69:21 Reproach hath broken my heart; and I am full of heaviness: and I looked for some to take pity, but there was none; and for comforters, but I found none.
John 19:28 After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.

A man ran to fill a sponge from a nearby jug of sour wine. He put the sponge on a hyssop branch and held it to Jesus’ mouth.

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:48 One of them ran to fill a sponge with sour wine and lifted the sponge on the end of a branch so Jesus could drink.
Mark 15:36 One of them ran to fill a sponge with sour wine and lifted the sponge on the end of a branch so Jesus could drink. “Wait. Let’s see if Elijah will come to save him.”
John 19:29 Someone filled a sponge from a nearby jug of sour wine, put the sponge on a hyssop branch, and held it to Jesus’ mouth.
King James

Matthew 27:48 And straightway one of them ran, and took a spunge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink.
Mark 15:36 And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down.
John 19:29 Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth.

Others said, “Wait. Let’s see if Elijah will come to save him.”

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:49 The others said, “Wait. Let’s see if Elijah will come to save him.”
Mark 15:36 One of them ran to fill a sponge with sour wine and lifted the sponge on the end of a branch so Jesus could drink. “Wait. Let’s see if Elijah will come to save him.”
King James

Matthew 27:49 The rest said, Let be, let us see whether Elias will come to save him.
Mark 15:36 And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down.

After Jesus had received the wine, he said, “It is finished. Father,” he screamed, “I place my life in your hands.” He bowed his head and quit breathing.

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:50 After Jesus screamed again, he quit breathing.
Mark 15:37 After Jesus screamed again, he quit breathing.
Luke 23:46 Jesus screamed, “Father, I place my life in your hands,” and he quit breathing.
John 19:30 After Jesus had received the wine, he said, “It is finished.” He bowed his head and quit breathing.
King James

Matthew 27:50 Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost.
Mark 15:37 And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.
Luke 23:46 And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.
John 19:30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.

The earth shook. Rocky cliffs broke apart. The Temple veil ripped in two, from top to bottom. Tombs were opened, and many godly men and women rose from the dead. They left their graves, entered Jerusalem, and were seen by many people.

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:51–53 The earth shook. Rocky cliffs broke apart. The Temple veil ripped in two, from top to bottom. Tombs were opened, and many godly men and women rose from the dead. After Jesus’ resurrection, they left their graves, entered Jerusalem, and were seen by many people.
Mark 15:37–38 After Jesus screamed again, he quit breathing. The Temple veil ripped in two, from top to bottom.
Luke 23:45–46 The sun gave no light, and the Temple veil ripped in two. Jesus screamed, “Father, I place my life in your hands,” and he quit breathing.
King James

Matthew 27:51–53 And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent; And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose, And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many.
Mark 15:37–38 And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost. And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom.
Luke 23:45–46 And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst. And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.

When the centurion who stood guard in front of Jesus heard him scream and saw how he died, he honored God by saying, “Truly, this man was innocent.” As he and his guards felt the earthquake, they feared for their lives and said, “This man really was the Son of God.”

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:54 When the centurion and his guards felt the earthquake and saw all that had happened, they feared for their lives and said, “This man really was the Son of God.”
Mark 15:39 When the centurion who stood guard in front of Jesus heard him scream and saw how he died, he said, “This man really was the Son of God.”
Luke 23:47 When the centurion saw what had happened, he honored God by saying, “Truly, this man was innocent.”
King James

Matthew 27:54 Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God.
Mark 15:39 And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God.
Luke 23:47 Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man.

The crowd that had come to witness the crucifixion left in deep sorrow after they saw Jesus die.

Eyewitness

Luke 23:48 The crowd that had come to witness the crucifixion left in deep sorrow after they saw Jesus die.
King James

Luke 23:48 And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned.

But those who knew Jesus, including the women who had followed from Galilee to serve him, continued to watch from a distance. Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of Joses and the younger James, and Salome, the mother of James and John, sons of Zebedee. Many other women who had come with Jesus to Jerusalem were also there.

Eyewitness

Matthew 27:55–56 Many women who had followed from Galilee to serve Jesus were watching from a distance. Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of James and John, sons of Zebedee.
Mark 15:40–41 From a safe distance away, women were watching. Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of Joses and the younger James, and Salome. They had followed Jesus and served him in Galilee. Many other women who had come with Jesus to Jerusalem were also there.
Luke 23:49 But those who knew Jesus, including the women who had followed from Galilee, continued to watch from a distance.
King James

Matthew 27:55–56 And many women were there beholding afar off, which followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto him: Among which was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedee’s children.
Mark 15:40–41 There were also women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome; (Who also, when he was in Galilee, followed him, and ministered unto him;) and many other women which came up with him unto Jerusalem.
Luke 23:49 And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.